The aim of the study was to assess the differences in functioning at school and fellow group, pupils with type 1 diabetes, compared to their healthy peers in the range of physical health. The research covered 218 girls and boys, aged in 7 to 19 years old (104 girls and 114 boys), including 52 girls and 57 boys from the diabetology clinic in the Regional Specialized Children’s Hospital in Olsztyn. Those were patients with clinically diagnosed insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes mellitus. The remaining participants were children and youth from the Olsztyn’s schools. All participants were divided into age groups corresponding to their education stages. Survey questionnaire was made of a polish version of the KIDSCREEN questionnaire for testing the quality of life related to the health of children and adolescents. Area regarding aspects of the physical health was taken into account (self-assessment of health status, physical activity of girls and boys, their physical fitness and ability to move in the immediate area). The research shows that there were no statistically significant differences in relation to the factors related with the functioning in the school environment and among the peers, between children with type 1 diabetes and their healthy peers at all educational stages, except for the fourth education stage, where significant differences were noted in boys. Healthy students were more negative about the school than their peers with diabetes. The disease did not affect the ability to concentrate and focus, both in girls and
in boys. Only boys with diabetes from primary school were more likely to have problems with concentration and attention. The results of tests of healthy and sick people were also comparable in relations with teachers. Girls and boys both healthy and diabetic had no problems in establishing good relationships with their teachers. Only in high school there were statistically significant differences in favor of students with diabetes. They had better relations with teachers than their healthy peers.