The interwar period was, for the Polish penitentiary system, a period of development of modern forms of contemporary prison, taking into account the experience of other countries and the recent provisions of international penitentiary conventions. One of them indicated the importance of physical and mental health of prisoners for their resocialization and a need to implement physical activity programs in prisons. Poland became a forerunner in this field in Europe. From the mid-twenties of the twentieth century on in many prisons in the country systematic physical exercises were carried out, staff officers were trained – instructors and sports infrastructure were created. What is more, legal acts were developed (prison regulations, penalty code, prison act), regulating the implementation of physical education in all prisons throughout the country. It was important that it included both men and women, not only adult prisoners in prisons, but also juvenile offenders in correctional educative institutions. It became an important element in the educational programs of the Polish penitentiary system in that period.