Olympic Sport is an important part of physical culture and sports movement at the international, national and regional levels. The achievements of athletes at the Olympic Games are the hallmark of the country and are of great importance for the formation of its image in the international arena.
Track-and-field athletics is a leader in the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast in the number of athletes participating in the Olympic Games and in the number of Olympic medals won during the Olympic games from 1952 to 1988. The article studies the historical aspects of the development of this sport, which is of significant interest not only for the historiography of the physical culture and sports movement in Ukraine and the region, but also allows us to highlight the main factors that determine the effectiveness of training highly qualified athletes. The chronological scope of this study covers the period from 1922 to 1991, when Ukraine was the part of the USSR and the Olympic sports developed in the conditions of the tough competition among athletes from 15 union republics.
During this period, the Russian Federation had an advantage in the development of Olympic sports, training experience of athletes from Ukraine and other Union Republics was of particular importance. According to this, preparation of Ukrainian and other Union Republic athletes is of great interest.