Introduction. Aging of the Polish population is one of the most important challenges of health and social policies in coming years. It is believed that physical activity is one of the most important factors which guarantees older people a chance for healthy and successful aging. Objective. The aim of this paper was to present the literature on the significance of physical activity in prevention and treatment of selected diseases of the old age. Description. This paper presents important information on the preventive effect of physical activity on the diseases of the elderly; it also presents exercises for the elderly with cardiovascular diseases (hypertension and heart failure), and exercises for individuals with osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Conclusions. This paper emphasizes the positive effects of regular physical activity. There is an increasing body of evidence which suggests that physical activity may prevent or delay the occurrence of many diseases of the elderly.